Human Factor
This constitutes about 90% of road traffic crashes. Out of this percentage, drivers’ action or reaction makes up 80%.
Human factor can further be classified under the following:


  • Overconfidence: Drivers often feel that they are masters of the vehicle and road.

However we all know that tyres, brakes and the engine control the motion of the vehicle. Drivers merely operate these controls.
Failure to ensure good working condition, as well as observing safe driving measures while on the road will result in road traffic crashes.

  • Speeding: Drivers believe that the faster they drive, the more they impress themselves and others.

They however forget that anything can happen to the vehicle, such as tyre burst, brake failure, or pedestrian running across the road.
More disasters and casualties are recorded when vehicles travel at higher speed than what obtains at low speed.
At 100 Km/hr, a vehicle moves at 28 meters per second. Imagine where driver would be if this vehicle veers off the road for 1 second, bearing in mind that the road is usually 12 meters wide.
Drivers forget that they cannot control the road, weather conditions and the environment.
0n-coming vehicles or vehicles being overtaken may do the unexpected, like swerving, stopping or trying to avoid pot holes. Furthermore, some of the roads have narrow bridges hidden around the corner.

  • Lack of Concentration: Drivers often engage in things that distract their attention while driving.

Such things include discussions with passengers, answering phone calls, eating, gesticulating, changing radio station or cassette.
Lack of concentration is very dangerous as it takes only a moment for crashes to occur. The vehicle in front may stop abruptly or a child may run into the road suddenly; hence anything can happen.
Be alert, always anticipate danger.

  • Tiredness: Some drivers drive long distances without even stretching their legs and improving their blood circulation to the brain. This makes the drivers feel tired and sleepy.

It is a frightening experience to be driven by a driver who sleeps while driving. Sudden awakening of the driver may result in a crash.
Again driving after a heavy meal can also be hazardous as the blood concentrates in the stomach to absorb the food, thus depriving the brain of oxygen which can cause the driver to fall asleep.
Over working also causes fatigue. Some articulated vehicle drivers work an average of 9 to 12 hours per day which is dangerous.

  • Driving under the influence of alcohol: Alcohol can cause over confidence, poor judgement, lack of coordination and recklessness.

In many countries, it is a major cause of road traffic crashes. This is the reason why special tests are conducted to detect those who have been drinking prior to driving.

Numbers of Bottles Percentage Concentration of Blood Behavior
1 0,01-0,02 Slight behavior
2 0,03-0,06 Feeling of wanmh and mental ralaxation
3 0,07-0,09 Exaggerated emotion and behavior or noisy or gloomy
4 0,10-0,12 Clumsiness, unsteadiness in standing or working in uncoordinated movement
5 0,12-0,60 Gross intoxication
  • Driving under the influence of drugs: Drugs can interfere with the ability to drive, Sometimes drugs that are prescribed by doctors have sedative (i.e, sleep inducing) effect on the driver.Coffee and kolanut are stimulants that tend to increase the alertness of drivers. Another stimulant popularly taken by these drivers is Indian hemp which is a street drug, and sometimes cocaine.

Such stimulants may work for some time and then tiredness and sleep come suddenly while driving, resulting to road traffic crashes.
Some drivers have been known to use chewing sticks to keep their mouths active, with the aim of staying awake. Remember, these drugs are no substitute for rest.

  • Poor vehicle care: Drivers often do not check their vehicles to ensure that they are in good condition for the road before setting out on a journey.

Tyres, tyre pressure, brake fluids, trafficator and brake lights are often neglected, These lead to road traffic crashes.

  • lndiscriminate Parking: Parking a vehicle in the middle of the road just to change a tyre or because of engine trouble is among the causes of road traffic crashes especially at night or around a sharp bend or close to the crest of a hill where the vehicle cannot be seen far off by other road users.

Some drivers of broken down vehicles do not give adequate warning signs to approaching vehicles and as such, others run into these vehicles.
In some cases hazardous obstacles placed on the road to warn or divert traffic, are left behind when the vehicles move on after repairs. This endangers other road users and may result in crashes.
S.10(3)(i) FRSC Act 2007

  • Dangerous overtaking: This is responsible for about 45% of all crashes. Careless overtaking and poor judgement combine to cause road traffic crashes.